Having a look at cell models, it seems they model only internal resistance (and an RC network) and open circuit voltage: There seems to be no asymmetry in the model with charge and discharge.
So it would seem as long as you don't over-voltage the cell, and you don't overheat the cell you should be able to charge arbitrarily quickly.
Some people are backing this up on stack exchage:
Also your alternator matched to your engine size may be capable of fast charging from 60 to 120A without any current limiting and only using Vbat sensing which is ideally 14.2V for desuplhating the battery without excessive electrolyte evaporation.
I once emailed crown batteries company and they say that it's actually OK to charge at very high current as long as the maximum charging voltage is not voilated with no side effect.
Both from here.
One reason I can think of that you can discharge faster than you can charge is because many of the discharging ratings are with voltage drops down to 7V for a 12V battery. But if you were to charge at the same rate, you will get the same voltage deflection from the Open Circuit Voltage, but 5V deflection on top of let's say 12V nominal is way higher than allowed (allowed may be 14.2V or so).
Your best bet is to run the battery fairly discharged, like 35% SOC or so, and yeah just make sure you don't overvolt it, and I think you should be fine.
I think automotive starter batteries are probably the best kind, since their current ratings are very high for their capacity. So maybe a motorbike battery would be good since it's a bit smaller, but still has that high peak current rating for cranking the engine.